# Meets global requirements for marine, aviation and land transport for low carbon fuel standards.

Expander’s synthetic SynDiesel® and SynJet® are clean burning, high quality, renewable fuels with remarkable characteristics:

• No sulphur, low aromatics, high cetane, colourless, odorless fuel
• Biodegradable and nontoxic
• Premium drop-in or blend fuel
• Suitable for use in current and future engines
• Meets or exceeds ASTM D975, BC’s LCFS, CARB and Euro 5 standards

# Source: alliance for synthetic fuels in europe (asfe)

The unique properties of paraffinic fuels to both enhance diesel performance and decarbonize the transport sector deliver huge benefits:

Improved Air Quality
Paraffinic fuel does not contain sulphur or nitrogen and therefore reduces harmful SOx and NOx emissions from diesel engines. They also reduce particulates, HC and carbon monoxide compared to conventional diesel fuel.

Fungibility
Paraffinic diesel fuels can replace or be blended with conventional diesel fuel without modification to the engine or the diesel retail infrastructure. Unlike some biofuels, paraffinic diesel fuels can be used in the winter without concern by enhancing the isomerization of the paraffinic fuel.

High Cetane Number
Due to the mixture of n- and iso-paraffins in the fuel, paraffinic diesel fuels have very high cetane numbers, from 75 – 90 (petroleum diesel is 40 – 50). Higher cetane numbers deliver enhanced diesel engine performance. Because blending paraffinic fuel with conventional diesel fuel increases the cetane number linearly, paraffinic fuels are far more beneficial than cetane improver additives.

Greater Stability
Paraffinic fuels have excellent stability and do not “expire” as conventional diesel fuel does. The solubility of water into paraffinic diesel fuels is similar to conventional diesel fuels, or even lower, since paraffins are non-polar hydrocarbons.

Higher Energy Content
Mass-based energy content of paraffinic fuels is higher than conventional diesel fuel, even though they have a lower density. The hydrogen content of paraffinic diesel leads to a higher-overall mass-based heating value for paraffinic diesel. From an efficiency standpoint, this means that the volumetric fuel consumption could increase for summer diesel and remain the same or decrease for winter diesel. Engine tuning also increases the energy efficiency gains of paraffinic diesel.

Lower Emissions
Studies have demonstrated the brake specific fuel consumption was lower for FT fuels than for conventional diesel, and the mass-based fuel consumption is lower than conventional fuels due to the higher energy content and combustion efficiency. However, given the lower density of the fuel, the volumetric fuel consumption may increase when compared to summer diesel fuels. Studies also show decreased tailpipe CO2 emissions with paraffinic fuels due to the higher hydrogen content and better engine efficiency for paraffins than for diesel fuel.

# synthetic fuel opportunity

Renewable diesel blends of between 2% and 4% are mandated across the country, however there is a significant shortage of supply, forcing Canadian companies to import the shortfall.

British Columbia mandates a minimum of 4% renewable fuel content in all diesel sold in the province through the Renewable and Low Carbon Fuel Requirements Regulation. The Regulation also sets out the carbon intensity limit for diesel fuel in 2020 and subsequent compliance periods as 85.28 g CO2e/MJ.

A Biomass and Gas to Liquids (BGTL™) plant is capable of producing low carbon synthetic diesel (SynDiesel®), with a third-party (Cap-Op Energy Inc.) verified carbon intensity score of 53.53 g CO2e/MJ. Conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel has a deemed carbon intensity of 93.3 g CO2e /MJ.

# Expander SynDiesel® and SynJet® are clean, renewable fuel alternatives consumers and governments want right now.

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